Hubbardia pentapeltis Cook, 1899


Original combination: Hubbardia pentapeltis


Genus type of Hubbardia Cook, 1899

Taxonomic references

Hubbardia pentapeltis

Cook, 1899: 253–254, figs 1a–n original description
Hilton, 1916: 74–76, figs 1–9
Moles, 1917: 1–3, figs 1–9
Reddell and Cokendolpher, 1991: 12–15, figs 19–21
Reddell and Cokendolpher, 1995: 78–79, figs 5, 57–58
Giribet, Edgecombe, Wheeler and Babbitt, 2002: 14
Harvey, 2003c: 110–111
Klompen, Lekveishvili and Black, 2007: 940
Monjaraz-Ruedas, Francke, Cruz-López and Santibáñez-López, 2016: n/a, figs 4A, B
Giribet and Moreno-González, 2021: 411, fig. 1B
Armas and Moreno-González, 2021: 189
Kallal, de Miranda, Garcia and Wood, 2022: 8-9, figs 1

Trithyreus pentapeltis (Cook):

Banks, 1900: 422
Comstock, 1913: 18, figs 16a–c
Moles, 1921: 11, fig. 1
Hilton, 1932b: 33–34
Hilton, 1932d: 45–46
Giltay, 1935: 8
Werner, 1935a: 469, fig. 173
Petrunkevitch, 1949: n/a, fig. 16
Petrunkevitch, 1955a: n/a, fig. 86(2)
Janetschek, 1957: n/a, fig. 4
Rémy, 1961a: 407
Briggs and Hom, 1966: 273, 274
Levi and Levi, 1968: 117, unnumbered fig
Rowland, 1972b: 153–159, fig. 1
Rowland, 1972c: 70–73, figs 1–2
Firstman, 1973: 5, 24, fig. 17
Wheeler, 1997: 89
Wheeler and Hayashi, 1998: 179
Pepato, da Rocha and Dunlop, 2010: 5

Schizomus pentapeltis (Cook):

Mello-Leitão, 1931: 18
Rowland and Reddell, 1981: 27–30, figs 15, 23, 27, 38
Bennett, 1985: 321–322

Distribution table
US (California)
Type locality: Palm Springs, Riverside County, California, U.S.A.


Locality Lat Lon
1 Palm Springs 33.833333 -116.55
Type repository
Zoobank LSID


Banks, N. (1900). Synopses of North-American invertebrates. IX. The scorpions, solpugids and pedipalpi. American Naturalist 34: 421–427. -- Show included taxa

Bennett, S.G. (1985). A new record of a short-tailed whip scorpion from Santa Catalina Island, California (Schizomida: Schizomidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 61: 321–322. -- Show included taxa

Briggs, T.S. & Hom, K. (1966). A new schizomid whip-scorpion from California with notes on the others (Uropygi: Schizomidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 42: 270–274. -- Show included taxa

Comstock, J.H. (1913). The spider book. Doubleday, Page and Co., New York. -- Show included taxa

Cook, O.F. (1899). Hubbardia, a new genus of Pedipalpi. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 4: 249–261. -- Show included taxa

Firstman, B. (1973). The relationship of the chelicerate arterial system to the evolution of the endosternite. Journal of Arachnology 1: 1–54. -- Show included taxa

Giltay, L. (1935). Notes arachnologiques Africaines. VII. Description d'un Pedipalpe nouveau du Congo belge (Trithyreus ghesquierei, n. sp.). Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 11(32): 1–8. -- Show included taxa

Giribet, G., Edgecombe, G.D., Wheeler, W.C. & Babbitt, C. (2002). Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70. -- Show included taxa

Harvey, M.S. (2003c). Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. -- Show included taxa

Hilton, W.A. (1916). The central nervous system and simple reactions of a rare whip scorpion. Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Pomona College 8: 74–79. -- Show included taxa

Hilton, W.A. (1932b). Tartarid whip scorpions of southern California. Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Pomona College 24: 33–34. -- Show included taxa

Hilton, W.A. (1932d). Tartarid whipscorpions of southern California. Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Pomona College 24: 45–46. -- Show included taxa

Janetschek, H. (1957). Das seltsamste Tier Tirols. Palpenlaüfer (Arachn., Palpigradida): Stellung, Verbreitung, Arten, Bibliographie. Schlern-Schriften 158: 190–214. -- Show included taxa

Klompen, H., Lekveishvili, M. & Black, W.C., IV (2007). Phylogeny of parasitiform mites (Acari) based on rRNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 936–951. -- Show included taxa

Levi, H.W. & Levi, L.R. (1968). Spiders and their kin. Golden Press, New York. -- Show included taxa

Mello-Leitão, C. (1931). Pedipalpos do Brasil e algumas notas sobre a ordem. Archivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro 33: 8–72. -- Show included taxa

Moles, M.L. (1917). Another record of a small whip scorpion in California. Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Pomona College 9: 1–7. -- Show included taxa

Moles, M.L. (1921). A list of California Arachnida. II. Pedipalpida or whip-scorpions. Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Pomona College 13: 11. -- Show included taxa

Monjaraz-Ruedas, R., Francke, O.F., Cruz-López, J.A. & Santibáñez-López, C.E. (2016). Annuli and setal patterns in the flagellum of female micro-whipscorpions (Arachnida: Schizomida): hypotheses of homology across an order. Zoologischer Anzeiger 263: 118–134. doi: -- Show included taxa

Pepato, A.R., da Rocha, C.E.F. & Dunlop, J.A. (2010). Phylogenetic position of the acariform mites: sensitivity to homology assessment under total evidence. BMC Evolutionary Biology 235: 1–23. doi: -- Show included taxa

Petrunkevitch, A. (1949). A study of Palaeozoic Arachnida. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 37: 69–315. -- Show included taxa

Petrunkevitch, A. (1955a). Arachnida. In: Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. P, Arthropoda University of Kansas Press, Lawrence 2: 42–162. -- Show included taxa

Reddell, J.R. & Cokendolpher, J.C. (1991). Redescription of Schizomus crassicaudatus (Pickard-Cambridge) and diagnoses of Hubbardia Cook, Stenochrus Chamberlin, and Sotanostenochrus new genus, with description of a new species of Hubbardia from California (Arachnida: Schizomida: Hubbardiidae). Pearce Sellards Series 47: 1–24. -- Show included taxa

Reddell, J.R. & Cokendolpher, J.C. (1995). Catalogue, bibliography, and generic revision of the order Schizomida (Arachnida). Texas Memorial Museum, Speleological Monographs 4: 1–170. -- Show included taxa

Rémy, P.A. (1961a). Sur l'écologie des schizomides (Arachn. Uropyges) de mes récoltes, avec description de trois Schizomus nouveaux, capturés par J. van der Drift au Surinam. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (2) 33: 406–414, 500–511. -- Show included taxa

Rowland, J.M. (1972b). Origins and distribution of two species groups of Schizomida (Arachnida). Southwestern Naturalist 17: 153–160. -- Show included taxa

Rowland, J.M. (1972c). The brooding habits and early development of Trithyreus pentapeltis (Cook) (Arachnida: Schizomida). Entomological News 83: 69–74. -- Show included taxa

Rowland, J.M. & Reddell, J.R. (1981). The order Schizomida (Arachnida) in the New World. IV. Goonightorum and briggsi groups (Schizomidae: Schizomus). Journal of Arachnology 9: 19–46. -- Show included taxa

Werner, F. (1935a). Klasse: Arachnoidea, Spinnentiere. Pedipalpen. In: Bronns, H.G. (ed.) Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig 5(IV)(8)(3): 317–490. -- Show included taxa

Wheeler, W.C. (1997). Sampling, groundplans, total evidence and the systematics of arthropods. In: Fortey, R.A. and Thomas, R.H. (ed.) Arthropod relationships Chapman and Hall, London: 87–95. -- Show included taxa

Wheeler, W.C. & Hayashi, C.Y. (1998). The phylogeny of the extant chelicerate orders. Cladistics 14: 173–192. -- Show included taxa

Kallal, R. J., de Miranda, G.S., Garcia, E.L. & Wood, H. M. (2022). Patterns in schizomid flagellum shape from elliptical Fourier analysis. Scientific Reports 12: e3986. doi: -- Show included taxa

Giribet, G. & Moreno-González, J.A. (2021). Notes on brooding in the arachnid order Schizomida. Journal of Arachnology 49. doi: -- Show included taxa

Armas, L.F. de & Moreno-González, J.A. (2021). Predators of the short-tailed whipscorpions (Schizomida): Are they so few? Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 38: 189–190. -- Show included taxa

Date Type Reference Old value
2022-08-29 New taxonomic reference entry Kallal, de Miranda, Garcia and Wood, 2022
2022-08-17 New taxonomic reference entry Armas and Moreno-González, 2021
2022-05-30 New taxonomic reference entry Giribet and Moreno-González, 2021