Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas, 1835)

SPECIES |   ACCEPTED

Original combination: Thelyphonus giganteus

LSID urn:lsid:wac.nmbe.ch:name:98520eca-fe14-4ff4-badf-ed632ebb3af2


Genus type of Mastigoproctus Pocock, 1894

Taxonomic references

Thelyphonus giganteus

Lucas, 1835b: n/a, without pagination, plate 8 original description
Lamarck, 1838: 117
Lucas, 1840: 326, plate 1 fig. 1
Koch, 1843: 21–22, figs 767–768
Gervais, 1844: 12
Koch, 1850: 85
Wood, 1863b: 374
Butler, 1872: 201
Marx, 1888a: 42
Marx, 1892: 252–254
Marx, 1893: 54–55
n/a, fig. 524 Shipley, 1909 (reference missing)
Freeman and Hochberg, 2018: 85-101, figs 1-9

Thelyphonus (?) giganteus Lucas:

Tarnani, 1890a: 538

Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas):

Pocock, 1894a: 130
Kraepelin, 1897a: 37–38, figs 10b, 38b
Lönnberg, 1897a: 190
Banks, 1898: 289
Kraepelin, 1899a: 224a
Banks, 1900: 422
Kraepelin, 1901b: 263
Pocock, 1902a: n/a, figs 2, 9
Pocock, 1902b: n/a, figs 40a, 41a–b
Pocock, 1902c: 47, plate X figs 1–4
Werner, 1902: 606
Börner, 1903: n/a, fig. 15
Banks, 1904a: 143
Börner, 1904: 5, text figs 9a–b, 19, 60, figs 4, 6, 49–50, 56–58, 61, 97
Tarnani, 1905: xi
Börner, 1904: n/a, fig. 3
Buxton, 1913: 238
Comstock, 1913: 19, fig. 14
Petrunkevitch, 1913: n/a, fig. 17
Patten, 1917: 251–275, figs 1, 3–4
Howard, 1919: 26
Barrows, 1925: 500, figs 34–35
Mello-Leitão, 1931: 27, fig. 11
Kästner, 1932a: n/a, figs 19, 37, 65
Werner, 1935a: 468, figs 21a, 27, 37, 42–43, 52, 66, 75, 80, 97
Snodgrass, 1948: n/a, figs 5b, 9a–h
Gertsch, 1949: 17
Millot, 1949a: n/a, fig. 49
Millot, 1949c: n/a, figs 287, 290, 292a–b, 294a–b, 297a–b, 298–299
Petrunkevitch, 1949: n/a, figs 1–2, 31–33, 43–46, 49–52
Petrunkevitch, 1952a: n/a, fig. 1
Henry, 1954: 2–3, figs 1–2
Horne, 1969: 155–159
Petrunkevitch, 1955a: n/a, figs 33(2), 84(2)
Kästner, 1956: n/a, fig. 514
Janetschek, 1957: n/a, figs 5–6
Eisner, Meinwald, Monro and Ghent, 1961: 272–297, figs 1–22
McKenzie, 1965: 35
Barr and Reddell, 1967: 259
Muma, 1967a: 21–23, fig. 16
Cloudsley-Thompson, 1968: 146, 147, 148
Kaestner, 1968: 117, 119, fig. 10–1
Legendre, 1968: 36, fig. 27
Levi and Levi, 1968: 116, unnumbered fig
Besch, 1969: 730
Lawrence, 1969c: 125, 130
Weygoldt, 1969: n/a, fig. 8
Ahearn, 1970: 339–351, figs 1–6
Weygoldt, 1970b: 1–7, figs 1a–b, 2a–d, 3a–f, 4a–e
Crawford and Cloudsley-Thompson, 1971: 99–106, fig. 1
Reddell, 1971a: 28
Reddell and Mitchell, 1971a: 145, fig. 18
Reddell and Mitchell, 1971b: 185
Weygoldt, 1971b: 137–141, figs 1a–b, 2a–b, 3–4, 5a–c, 6, plates Ia–d, Iia–c, IIIa–c
Weygoldt, 1972b: n/a, figs 3a–c, 6b, 7a–d, 13b
Weygoldt, 1972d: n/a, figs 5a–e, 6
Firstman, 1973: 5, 22–23, figs 14–15
Reddell and Elliott, 1973b: 183
Rowland and Cooke, 1973: 68
Cutler and Richards, 1974: 1394
Cloudsley-Thompson, 1975: 266, 273, 274
Muma, 1975b: 262
Weygoldt, 1975b: 311
Weygoldt, 1975c: n/a, figs 2a–e, 5a–c
Rowland and Reddell, 1976: 3–4
Cloudsley-Thompson, 1978: 186, 188
Jespersen, 1978: 241, figs 21–23
Cokendolpher and Bryce, 1980: 18
Garcia Acosta, 1980: 43
Haupt, Emde and Weygoldt, 1980: 205–213, figs 1–8
Crawford, 1981: 21, 35–36, 56, 59, 78, 86, 134, 137, 215, fig. 12c
Reddell, 1981: 124
Levi, 1982a: n/a, plate 94
Vasta and Cohen, 1984: 334–340
Homann, 1985: 70
Cloudsley-Thompson, 1986: 30
Shultz, 1989: 11, figs 1d, 5d, 9d, 15d
Barnes, 1987: 508, figs 13–15, 13–16a–b
Minton and Moreno, 1988: 35
Coddington, Larcher and Cokendolpher, 1990: 11
Corey and Stout, 1990: 169, 170
Crawford, 1990a: 434, fig. 16.5
Weygoldt, 1990: n/a, figs 2C, 2E
Selden, Shear and Bonamo, 1991: n/a, fig. 5
Shultz, 1991: 13–31, figs 5c, 7–11
Shultz, 1992a: n/a, fig. 1a; 314–328, figs 1a, 2–3
Shultz, 1992b: 148–150, figs 1–2
Shultz, 1993: n/a, figs 1, 2a–c, 3a–b, 4a–d, 5a–b, 6, 7a–b, 8, 9a–b
Wheeler, Cartright and Hayashi, 1993: 20
Dunlop, 1994b: 267
Dunlop, 1994d: 10, unnumbered fig
Ruppert and Barnes, 1994: n/a, fig. 13–13
Alberti, 1995: n/a, fig. 5a
Vázquez-Rojas, 1995: 35, 36
Wheeler, 1995: 324
Vázquez Rojas, 1996c: 67–69
Regier and Shultz, 1997: 905
Wheeler, 1997: 89
Selden and Dunlop, 1998: n/a, fig. 7.1
Wheeler and Hayashi, 1998: 179
Alberti, 2000: 313, fig. 7a
Lazell, 2000: n/a, fig. 2a
Punzo, 2000b: 385–386
Schmidt, Dani, Jones and Morgan, 2000: 443–450
Ax, 2001: n/a, figs 47b–g
Coddington and Colwell, 2001: 211
Giribet, Edgecombe and Wheeler, 2001: 158
Punzo, 2001: 35–39, figs 3–4
Punzo and Reeves, 2001: 93–96, figs 1–2
Giribet, Edgecombe, Wheeler and Babbitt, 2002: 14
Dunlop and Martill, 2002: n/a, figs 5a–b
Weygoldt, 2002f: 466, 467, 468, fig. 634
Harvey, 2003c: 66
Schmidt, 2003: 11
Haupt, 2004b: n/a, figs 3a–d
Giribet, Richter, Edgecombe and Wheeler, 2005: 323
Punzo, 2005: 172–173
Punzo and Olsen, 2005: 206–211, fig. 1
Punzo, 2006b: 266–267
Klompen, Lekveishvili and Black, 2007: 940
Punzo, 2007: 66–72
Bourlat, Nielsen, Economou and Telford, 2008: 25
Masta and Boore, 2008: 950, 953
Regier, Shultz, Ganley, Hussey, Shi, Ball, Zwick, Stajich, Cummings, Martin and Cunningham, 2008: 923
Carrel and Britt, 2009: 500–502, figs 1–4
Haupt, 2009a: n/a, figs 1, 4, 10
Pepato, da Rocha and Dunlop, 2010: 5
Whitford and Steinberger, 2010: 1454
Arabi, Judson, Deharveng, Lourenco, Cruaud and Hassanin, 2012: n/a, fig. 2A
Ovchinnikov and Masta, 2012: 3–14, fig. 4
Rehm, Pick, Borner, Markl and Burmester, 2012: 3
Giribet, McIntyre, Christian, Espinasa, Ferreira, Francke, Harvey, Isaia, Kovác, McCutchen, Souza and Zagmajster, 2014: 354, fig. 2
Fernández and Giribet, 2015: 8, figs 2, 3
Harvey, Huey, Hillyer, McIntyre and Giribet, 2016: 81, fig. 2
Monjaraz-Ruedas, Francke, Cruz-López and Santibáñez-López, 2016: n/a, figs 6A, B
Wolff and Strausfeld, 2015: 42, fig. 4
Lehmann and Melzer, 2019: 27-28, figs 3, 4a
Grams, Wirkner and Runge, 2018: 75-99, figs 1-13, tables 1-7
Gallant and Hochberg, 2017: 345-358, figs 2-3, 6
Klußmann-Fricke and Wirkner, 2016: 1093-1098, figs 4b-m, 5a-b, d-i, 6a-e, table 1

Not Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas):

Franganillo Balboa, 1930: 92 (misidentification, see Mastigoproctus pelegrini Armas)
Franganillo Balboa, 1931: 48 (misidentification, see Mastigoproctus pelegrini Armas)


Synonyms
Thelyphonus excubitor Girard, 1853 -- synonymised by Wood, 1863b: 374
LSID urn:lsid:wac.nmbe.ch:name:7d7e5f33-5464-4e5b-8834-a081bdc4802b
Thelyphonus excubitor
Girard, 1853: 265–267, plate XVII figs 1–4 original description
236–238, plate XVII figs 1–4 (synonymised by Wood, 1863b: 374) Girard, 1854 (reference missing)
Thelyphonus rufus Butler, 1872 -- synonymised by Pocock, 1894a: 130
LSID urn:lsid:wac.nmbe.ch:name:789eb3f0-d802-4156-a5f7-0b5f7aa773cc
Thelyphonus rufus
Butler, 1872: 205–206, fig. 8 (synonymised by Pocock, 1894a: 130) original description
Thelyphonus (?) rufus Butler:
Tarnani, 1890a: 538
Mastigoproctus giganteus floridanus Lönnberg, 1897 -- synonymised by Kraepelin, 1899a: 224
LSID urn:lsid:wac.nmbe.ch:name:3c51ebd3-3e70-4a59-9f69-c57e6e25b050
Mastigoproctus giganteus floridanus
Lönnberg, 1897a: 189–191 (synonymised by Kraepelin, 1899a: 224) original description
Distribution
Distribution table
Mexico
US (Arizona, Florida, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas)
Type locality: Mexico.

Coordinates

Locality Lat Lon
1 Mexico (IMPRECISE) 20 -100
Type repository
    N/A
Zoobank LSID

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:8428B229-6CE5-41E7-BE05-CD51335AD8AD

References

Ahearn, G.A. (1970). Water balance in the whipscorpion, Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida, Uropygi). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 35: 339–353. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406X(70)90600-6 -- Show included taxa

Alberti, G. (1995). Comparative spermatology of Chelicerata: review and perspective. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 166: 203–230. -- Show included taxa

Alberti, G. (2000). Chelicerata. In: Jamieson, B.G.M. (ed.) Progress in male gamete ultrastructure and phylogeny Oxford and IBH, New Delhi and Calcutta 9 (B): 311–388. -- Show included taxa

Arabi, J., Judson, M.L., Deharveng, L., Lourenco, W.R., Cruaud, C. & Hassanin, A. (2012). Nucleotide composition of CO1 sequences in Chelicerata (Arthropoda): detecting new mitogenomic rearrangements. Journal of Molecular Evolution 74: 81–95. -- Show included taxa

Ax, P. (2001). Multicellular animals: the phylogenetic system of the Metazoa. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York II. -- Show included taxa

Banks, N. (1898). Arachnida from Baja California and other parts of Mexico. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (3) 1: 205–308. -- Show included taxa

Banks, N. (1900). Synopses of North-American invertebrates. IX. The scorpions, solpugids and pedipalpi. American Naturalist 34: 421–427. -- Show included taxa

Banks, N. (1904a). The Arachnida of Florida. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 56: 120–147. -- Show included taxa

Barnes, R.D. (1987). Invertebrate zoology. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, etc.. [fifth edition] -- Show included taxa

Barr, T.C., Jr & Reddell, J.R. (1967). The arthropod cave fauna of the Carlsbad Caverns region, New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 12: 253–274. -- Show included taxa

Barrows, W.M. (1925). Modification and development of the arachnid palpal claw, with especial reference to spiders. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 18: 483–516. -- Show included taxa

Besch, W. (1969). South American Arachnida. In: Fittkau, E.J., Illies, J., Klinge, H., Schwabe, G.H. and Sioli, H. (ed.) Biogeography and ecology in South America Junk, The Hague: 723–740. -- Show included taxa

Börner, C. (1903). Über die Beingliederung der Arthropoden. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender der Freunde zu Berlin 7: 292–341. -- Show included taxa

Börner, C. (1904). Beitrage zur Morphologie der Arthropoden. I. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pedipalpen. Zoologica, Stuttgart 42: 1–174. -- Show included taxa

Bourlat, S.J., Nielsen, C., Economou, A.D. & Telford, M.J. (2008). Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 23–31. -- Show included taxa

Butler, A.G. (1872). A monograph of the genus Thelyphonus. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 10: 200–206. -- Show included taxa

Buxton, B.H. (1913). Coxal glands of the arachnids. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 15: 231–282. -- Show included taxa

Carrel, J.E. & Britt, E.J. (2009). The whip scorpion, Mastigoproctus giganteus (Uropygi: Thelyphonidae), preys on the chemically defended Florida scrub millipede, Floridobolus penneri (Spirobolida: Floridobolidae). Florida Entomologist 92: 500–502. doi: https://doi.org/10.1653/024.092.0313 -- Show included taxa

Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L. (1968). Spiders, scorpions, centipedes and mites. Pergamon Press, Oxford. [revised edition] -- Show included taxa

Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L. (1975). Adaptations of Arthropoda to arid environnments. Annual Review of Entomology 20: 261–283. -- Show included taxa

Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L. (1978). Biological clocks in Arachnida. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 4: 184–191. -- Show included taxa

Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L. (1986). Desert adaptations in arachnids. In: Eberhard, W.G., Lubin, Y.D. and Robinson, B.C. (ed.) Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Arachnology, Panama 1983 Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.: 29–32. -- Show included taxa

Coddington, J.A. & Colwell, R.K. (2001). Arachnids. In: Levin, S.A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Academic Press, San Diego 1: 199–218. -- Show included taxa

Coddington, J.A., Larcher, S.F. & Cokendolpher, J.C. (1990). The systematic status of Arachnida, exclusive of Acari, in North America north of Mexico. In: Kosztarab, M. and Schaefer, C.W. (ed.) Systematics of the North American insects and arachnids: status and needs Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg: 5–20. -- Show included taxa

Cokendolpher, J.C. & Bryce, F.D. (1980). Arachnids (excluding Acarina and Pseudoscorpionida) of the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. Occasional Papers of the Museum, Texas Tech University 67: 1–25. -- Show included taxa

Comstock, J.H. (1913). The spider book. Doubleday, Page and Co., New York. -- Show included taxa

Corey, D.T. & Stout, I.J. (1990). Ground surface arachnids in sandhill communities of Florida. Journal of Arachnology 18: 167–172. -- Show included taxa

Crawford, C.S. (1981). Biology of desert invertebrates. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. -- Show included taxa

Crawford, C.S. (1990a). Scorpions, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D.L. (ed.) Soil biology guide John Wiley and Sons, New York: 421–475. -- Show included taxa

Crawford, C.S. & Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L. (1971). Water relations and dessication-avoiding behavior in the vinegaroon Mastigoproctus giganteus (Arachnida: Uropygi). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 14: 99–106. -- Show included taxa

Cutler, B. & Richards, A.G. (1974). On the absence of chitin in the endosternite of Chelicerata. Experientia 30: 1393–1394. -- Show included taxa

Dunlop, J.[A.] (1994d). Whip spiders. Journal of the British Tarantula Society 9: 13–14. -- Show included taxa

Dunlop, J.A. (1994b). Filtration mechanisms in the mouthparts of tetrapulmonate arachnids (Trigonotarbida, Araneae, Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 9: 267–273. -- Show included taxa

Dunlop, J.A. & Martill, D.M. (2002). The first whipspider (Arachnida: Amblypygi) and three new whipscorpions (Arachnida: Thelyphonida) from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 92: 325–334. -- Show included taxa

Eisner, T., Meinwald, J., Monro, A. & Ghent, R. (1961). Defense mechanisms of arthropods - I. The composition and function of the spray of the whipscorpion, Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida: Pedipalpida). Journal of Insect Physiology 6: 272–298. -- Show included taxa

Fernández, R. & Giribet, G. (2015). Unnoticed in the tropics: phylogenomic resolution of the poorly known arachnid order Ricinulei (Arachnida). Royal Society Open Science 2(150065): 1–13. doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150065 -- Show included taxa

Firstman, B. (1973). The relationship of the chelicerate arterial system to the evolution of the endosternite. Journal of Arachnology 1: 1–54. -- Show included taxa

Franganillo Balboa, P. (1930). Mas arácnidos nuevos de la Isla de Cuba. Memorias de la Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Cientifico y Museo Historia Natural, La Habana 1: 45–99. -- Show included taxa

Franganillo Balboa, P. (1931). Excursiones aracnológicas durante el mes de Agosto de 1930. Revista Belén, La Habana 24: 44–49, 116–120, 168–171, 219–224, 285–288. -- Show included taxa

Garcia Acosta, R. (1980). Contribución al conocimiento de la etologia de Mastigoproctus giganteus (Arachnida, Uropygi). Folia Entomologica Mexicana 43: 43. -- Show included taxa

Gertsch, W.J. (1949). American spiders. D. van Nostrand, Princeton. -- Show included taxa

Gervais, P. (1844). Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Aptères. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris 3. -- Show included taxa

Girard, C. (1853). Arachnidians. In: Marcy, R.B. and McClellan, G.B. (ed.) Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana, in the year 1852 Robert Armstrong, Washington: 262–271. -- Show included taxa

Giribet, G., Edgecombe, G.D. & Wheeler, W.C. (2001). Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157–161. -- Show included taxa

Giribet, G., Edgecombe, G.D., Wheeler, W.C. & Babbitt, C. (2002). Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70. -- Show included taxa

Giribet, G., McIntyre, E., Christian, E., Espinasa, L., Ferreira, R.L., Francke, O.F., Harvey, M.S., Isaia, M., Kovác, L., McCutchen, L., Souza, M.F.V.R. & Zagmajster, M. (2014). The first phylogenetic analysis of Palpigradi (Arachnida) — the most enigmatic arthropod order. Invertebrate Systematics 28: 350–360. doi: https://doi.org/10.1071/IS13057 -- Show included taxa

Giribet, G., Richter, S., Edgecombe, G. & Wheeler, G.C. (2005). The position of crustaceans within Arthropoda - evidence from nine molecular loci and morphology. In: Koenemann, S. and Jenner, R.A. (ed.) Crustacea and arthropod relationships Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, London, New York, Singapore: 307–352. -- Show included taxa

Grams, M., Wirkner, C.S. & Runge, J. (2018). Serial and special: Comparison of podomeres and muscles in tactile vs walking legs of whip scorpions (Arachnida, Uropygi). Zoologischer Anzeiger 273: 75–101. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2017.06.001 -- Show included taxa

Harvey, M.S. (2003c). Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. -- Show included taxa

Harvey, M.S., Huey, J.A., Hillyer, M.J., McIntyre, E. & Giribet, G. (2016). The first troglobitic species of Gymnobisiidae (Pseudoscorpiones, Neobisioidea), from Table Mountain (Western Cape Province, South Africa) and its phylogenetic position. Invertebrate Systematics 30: 75–85. -- Show included taxa

Haupt, J. (2004b). Mastigoproctus transoceanicus a synonym of Typopeltis cantonensis (Arachnida, Uropygi, Thelyphonidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83: 157–162. -- Show included taxa

Haupt, J. (2009a). Proposal for the synonymy of some south-east Asian whip scorpion genera (Arachnida, Uropygi, Thelyphonida). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 17: 13–20. -- Show included taxa

Haupt, J., Emde, W. & Weygoldt, P. (1980). Die Geisselorgane des Geisselskorpions Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida: Uropygi): transportepithel. Zoomorphologie 96: 205–213. -- Show included taxa

Henry, L.M. (1954). The cephalic nervous system and segmentation in the Pedipalpida and the Solpugida (Arachnida). Microentomology 19: 2–13. -- Show included taxa

Homann, H. (1985). Die Cheliceren der Araneae, Amblypygi und Uropygi mit dem Skleriten, den Plagulae (Chelicerata, Arachnomorpha). Zoomorphology 105: 69–75. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00312140 -- Show included taxa

Horne, F.R. (1969). Purine excretion in five scorpions, a uropygid and a centipede. Biological Bulletin 137: 155–160. -- Show included taxa

Howard, L.O. (1919). Note on the vinegarone (Arach., Pedipalpi). Entomological News 30: 26. -- Show included taxa

Janetschek, H. (1957). Das seltsamste Tier Tirols. Palpenlaüfer (Arachn., Palpigradida): Stellung, Verbreitung, Arten, Bibliographie. Schlern-Schriften 158: 190–214. -- Show included taxa

Jespersen, A. (1978). The fine structure of spermiogenesis in the Amblypygi and the Uropygi (Arachnida). Zoomorphologie 89: 237–250. -- Show included taxa

Kaestner, A. (1968). Arthropod relatives, Chelicerata, Myriapoda. In: Invertebrate zoology John Wiley & Sons, New York 2. -- Show included taxa

Kästner, A. (1932a). Pedipalpi Latreille = Geissel-Scorpione. In: Kükenthal, W. (ed.) Handbuch der Zoologie Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin und Leipzig 3 (2) (2): 1–76. -- Show included taxa

Kästner, A. (1956). Wirbellose. In: Lehrbuch der Speziellen Zoologie Gustav Fischer, Jena 1(3): 485–658. -- Show included taxa

Klompen, H., Lekveishvili, M. & Black, W.C., IV (2007). Phylogeny of parasitiform mites (Acari) based on rRNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 936–951. -- Show included taxa

Koch, C.L. (1843). Die Arachniden. Getreu nach der Natur Abgebildet und Beschrieben. C.H. Zeh'schen, Nürnberg 10. -- Show included taxa

Koch, C.L. (1850). Übersicht des Arachnidensystems. J.L. Lotzbeck, Nürnberg 5. -- Show included taxa

Kraepelin, K. (1897a). Revision der Uropygi Thor. (Thelyphonidae auct.). Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg 15: 1–58. -- Show included taxa

Kraepelin, K. (1899a). Scorpiones und Pedipalpi. Tierreich 8: i–xviii, 1–265. -- Show included taxa

Kraepelin, K. (1901b). Catalogue des Pédipalpes des collections du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 7: 263–264. -- Show included taxa

Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (1838). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. J.B. Baillière, Paris 5. [2nd edition] -- Show included taxa

Lawrence, R.F. (1969c). The trichoid structures on the chelicerae of the short-tailed whip-scorpions (Schizomida; Arachnida). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 38: 123–132. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00359196909519080 -- Show included taxa

Lazell, J. (2000). Mastigoproctus transoceanicus sp. nov. (Arachnida: Uropygida: Thelyphonidae), a genus new to the Old World, with discussion of the biogeography of the order. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 25: 304–311. -- Show included taxa

Legendre, R. (1968). Morphologie et développement des Chélicerates. Embryologie, développement et anatomie des Xiphosures, Scorpions, Pseudoscorpions, Opilions, Palpigrades, Uropyges, Amblypyges, Solifuges et Pycnogonides.. Fortschritte der Zoologie 19: 1–50. -- Show included taxa

Levi, H.W. (1982a). Uropygi. In: Parker, S.P. (ed.) Synopsis and classification of living organisms McGraw-Hill, New York 2: 75. -- Show included taxa

Levi, H.W. & Levi, L.R. (1968). Spiders and their kin. Golden Press, New York. -- Show included taxa

Lönnberg, E. (1897a). Skorpioner och Pedipalper i Upsala Universitets Zoologiska Museum. Entomologisk Tidskrift 18: 175–192. -- Show included taxa

Lucas, H. (1835b). Sur une monographie du genre Thélyphone. Magasin de Zoologie 5: Classe VIII, Plates 8–10. -- Show included taxa

Lucas, H. (1840). Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, des Arachnides et des Myriapodes. P. Duménil, Paris. -- Show included taxa

Marx, G. (1888a). On the genus Thelyphonus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 1: 42. -- Show included taxa

Marx, G. (1892). Contributions to the knowledge of the life history of Arachnida. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 2: 252–256. -- Show included taxa

Marx, G. (1893). Continuation of the life-history of the whip-tail scorpion. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 3: 54–55. -- Show included taxa

Masta, S.E. & Boore, J.L. (2008). Parallel evolution of truncated transfer RNA genes in arachnid mitochondrial genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25: 949–959. -- Show included taxa

McKenzie, D. (1965). Caves of the Sierra de El Abra. Part III. Tamuin and El Pujal, S.L.P.. Bulletin of the Association for Mexican Cave Studies 1: 34–41. -- Show included taxa

Mello-Leitão, C. (1931). Pedipalpos do Brasil e algumas notas sobre a ordem. Archivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro 33: 8–72. -- Show included taxa

Millot, J. (1949a). Classe de Arachnides (Arachnida). I. - Morphologie générale et anatomie interne. In: Grassé, P.-P. (ed.) Traité de zoologie Masson, Paris 6: 263–319. -- Show included taxa

Millot, J. (1949c). Ordre des Uropyges. In: Grassé, P.-P. (ed.) Traité de zoologie Masson, Paris 6: 533–562. -- Show included taxa

Minton, S.A. & Moreno, S. (1988). Geophis sp. predation. Herpetological Review 19: 35. -- Show included taxa

Monjaraz-Ruedas, R., Francke, O.F., Cruz-López, J.A. & Santibáñez-López, C.E. (2016). Annuli and setal patterns in the flagellum of female micro-whipscorpions (Arachnida: Schizomida): hypotheses of homology across an order. Zoologischer Anzeiger 263: 118–134. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2016.05.003 -- Show included taxa

Muma, M.H. (1967a). Scorpions, whip scorpions and wind scorpions of Florida. Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas 4: 1–28. -- Show included taxa

Muma, M.H. (1975b). Long term can trapping for population analyses of ground-surface, arid-land arachnids. Florida Entomologist 58: 257–270. -- Show included taxa

Ovchinnikov, S. & Masta, S.E. (2012). Pseudoscorpion mitochondria show rearranged genes and genome-wide reductions of RNA gene sizes and inferred structures, yet typical nucleotide composition bias. BMC Evolutionary Biology 12: 31. -- Show included taxa

Patten, B.M. (1917). Reactions of the whip-tail scorpion to light. Journal of Experimental Zoology 23: 251–275. -- Show included taxa

Pepato, A.R., da Rocha, C.E.F. & Dunlop, J.A. (2010). Phylogenetic position of the acariform mites: sensitivity to homology assessment under total evidence. BMC Evolutionary Biology 235: 1–23. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-10-235 -- Show included taxa

Petrunkevitch, A. (1913). A monograph of the terrestrial Palaeozoic Arachnida of North America. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 18: 1–137. -- Show included taxa

Petrunkevitch, A. (1949). A study of Palaeozoic Arachnida. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 37: 69–315. -- Show included taxa

Petrunkevitch, A. (1952a). Principles of classification as illustrated by studies of Arachnida. Systematic Zoology 1: 1–19. -- Show included taxa

Petrunkevitch, A. (1955a). Arachnida. In: Moore, R.C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. P, Arthropoda University of Kansas Press, Lawrence 2: 42–162. -- Show included taxa

Pocock, R.I. (1894a). Notes on the Thelyphonidae contained in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 14: 120–134. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939408677779 -- Show included taxa

Pocock, R.I. (1902a). Studies on the arachnid entosternite. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science (new series) 46: 225–262. -- Show included taxa

Pocock, R.I. (1902b). On some points in the anatomy of the alimentary and nervous systems of the arachnidan suborder Pedipalpi. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902(2): 169–188. -- Show included taxa

Pocock, R.I. (1902c). Arachnida: Scorpiones, Pedipalpi, and Solifugae. In: Godman, F.D. and Salvin, O. (ed.) Biologia Centrali-Americana Taylor and Francis, London 3: 1–71. -- Show included taxa

Punzo, F. (2000b). Diel activity patterns and diet of the giant whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida, Uropygi) in Big Bend National Park (Chihuahuan Desert). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 11: 385–387. -- Show included taxa

Punzo, F. (2001). Substrate preferences, and the relationship between soil characteristics and the distribution of the giant whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida, Uropygi) in Big Bend National Park. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12: 35–41. -- Show included taxa

Punzo, F. (2005). Use of a Y-maze to assess the response of the giant whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Arachnida: Uropygi) to olfactory cues associated with a predator, Hogna carolinensis (Araneae: Lycosidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 13: 172–174. -- Show included taxa

Punzo, F. (2006b). Types of`shelter sites used by the giant whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Arachnida, Uropygi) in a habitat charcterized by hard adobe soils. Journal of Arachnology 34: 266–268. doi: https://doi.org/10.1636/S04-61.1 -- Show included taxa

Punzo, F. (2007). Microhabitat utlisation, diet composition, intraguild predation, and diel peridocity in five sympatric species of desert arachnids: a wolf spider (Hogna carolinensis), tarantula spider (Aphonopelma steindachneri), solifuge (Eremobates palpisetulosus), giant whipscorpion (Mastigoproctus giganteus), and scorpion (Diplocentrus bigbendensis). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 14: 66–73. -- Show included taxa

Punzo, F. & Olsen, S. (2005). Temperature and water relations of the giant whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida, Uropygi: Thelyphonidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 13: 206–212. -- Show included taxa

Punzo, F. & Reeves, C. (2001). Geographical variation in male courtship behaviour of the giant whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida, Uropygi). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12: 93–96. -- Show included taxa

Reddell, J.R. (1971a). A preliminary bibliography of Mexican cave biology with a checklist of published records. Bulletin of the Association for Mexican Cave Studies 3: 1–184. -- Show included taxa

Reddell, J.R. (1981). A review of the cavernicole fauna of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Bulletin of the Texas Memorial Museum 27: 1–327. -- Show included taxa

Reddell, J.R. & Elliott, W.R. (1973b). A checklist of the cave fauna of Mexico. V. Additional records from the Sierra de Guatemala, Tamaulipas. Bulletin of the Association for Mexican Cave Studies 5: 181–190. -- Show included taxa

Reddell, J.R. & Mitchell, R.W. (1971a). A checklist of the cave fauna of Mexico. I. Sierra de El Albra, Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi. Bulletin of the Association for Mexican Cave Studies 4: 137–180. -- Show included taxa

Reddell, J.R. & Mitchell, R.W. (1971b). A checklist of the cave fauna of Mexico. II. Sierra de Guatemala. Tamaulipas. Bulletin of the Association for Mexican Cave Studies 4: 181–215. -- Show included taxa

Regier, J.C. & Shultz, J.W. (1997). Molecular phylogeny of the major arthropod groups indicates polyphyly of crustaceans and a new hypothesis for the origin of hexapods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 902–913. -- Show included taxa

Regier, J.C., Shultz, J.W., Ganley, A.R.D., Hussey, A., Shi, D., Ball, B., Zwick, A., Stajich, J.E., Cummings, M.P., Martin, J.W. & Cunningham, C.W. (2008). Resolving arthropod phylogeny: exploring phylogenetic signal within 41 kb of protein-coding nuclear gene sequence. Systematic Biology 57: 920–938. -- Show included taxa

Rehm, P., Pick, C., Borner, J., Markl, J. & Burmester, T. (2012). The diversity and evolution of chelicerate hemocyanins. BMC Evolutionary Biology 12(1): 1–13. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-12-19 -- Show included taxa

Rowland, J.M. & Cooke, J.A.L. (1973). Systematics of the arachnid order Uropygida (= Thelyphonida). Journal of Arachnology 1: 55–71. -- Show included taxa

Rowland, J.M. & Reddell, J.R. (1976). Annotated checklist of the arachnid fauna of Texas (excluding Acarida and Araneida). Occasional Papers of the Museum, Texas Technical University 38: 1–25. -- Show included taxa

Ruppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D. (1994). Invertebrate zoology. Saunders College Publishers, Fort Worth, etc.. [Sixth edition] -- Show included taxa

Schmidt, J. (2003). Who preys on the ultimate predator: life history strategies of the vineragoon, Mastigoproctus giganteus. American Arachnology 66: 11. -- Show included taxa

Schmidt, J.O., Dani, F.R., Jones, G.R. & Morgan, E.D. (2000). Chemistry, ontogeny, and role of the pygidial gland secretions of the vineragoon Mastigoproctus giganteus (Arachnida: Uropygi). Journal of Insect Physiology 46: 443–450. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-1910(99)00130-4 -- Show included taxa

Selden, P.A. & Dunlop, J.A. (1998). Fossil taxa and relationships of Chelicerata. In: Edgecombe, G. (ed.) Arthropod fossils and phylogeny Columbia University Press, New York: 303–331. -- Show included taxa

Selden, P.A., Shear, W.A. & Bonamo, P.M. (1991). A spider and other arachnids from the Devonian of New York, and reinterpretations of Devonian Araneae. Palaeontology 34: 241–281. -- Show included taxa

Shultz, J.W. (1989). Morphology of locomotor appendages in Arachnida: evolutionary trends and phylogenetic implications. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 97: 1–56. -- Show included taxa

Shultz, J.W. (1991). Evolution of locomotion in Arachnida: the hydraulic pressure pump of the giant whipscorpion, Mastigoproctus giganteus (Uropygi). Journal of Morphology 210: 13–31. -- Show included taxa

Shultz, J.W. (1992a). Muscle firing patterns in two arachnids using different methods of propulsive leg extension. Journal of Experimental Biology 162: 313–329. -- Show included taxa

Shultz, J.W. (1992b). Step-coupled fluctuations in prosomal pressure may constrain stepping rates in whipscorpions (Uropygi). Journal of Arachnology 20: 148–150. -- Show included taxa

Shultz, J.W. (1993). Muscular anatomy of the giant whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida: Uropygi) and its evolutionary significance. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 108: 335–365. -- Show included taxa

Snodgrass, R.E. (1948). The feeding organs of Arachnida, including mites and ticks. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 110(10): 1–93. -- Show included taxa

Tarnani, J. (1890a). Ueber die Thelyphoniden aus den Sammlungen einiger Russischer Museen. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae 24: 511–539. -- Show included taxa

Tarnani, J. (1905). [New data for the classification of the Thelyphonidae (Pedipalpi)]. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae 37: viii–xii. -- Show included taxa

Vasta, G.R. & Cohen, E. (1984). Sialic acid-binding lectins in the "whip-scorpion" (Mastigoproctus giganteus) serum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 43: 333–342. -- Show included taxa

Vázquez Rojas, I. (1996c). Uropygi. In: Llorente Bousquets, J.E., García Aldrete, A.N. and González Soriano, E. (ed.) Biodiversidad, taxonomía y biogeografía de artrópodos de México: hacia una síntesis de su conocimiento Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F.: 67–69. -- Show included taxa

Vázquez-Rojas, I. (1995). Los aracnidos de Mexico parte 1: Ricinulei, Amblypygi, Solifugae, Palpigradi, Schizomida, Uropygi. Dugesiana 2: 15–37. -- Show included taxa

Werner, F. (1902). Die Scorpione, Pedipalpen und Solifugen in der Zoologisch-vergleichend-anatomischen Sammlung der Universität Wien. Verhandlungen der K. K. Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 52: 595–608. -- Show included taxa

Werner, F. (1935a). Klasse: Arachnoidea, Spinnentiere. Pedipalpen. In: Bronns, H.G. (ed.) Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig 5(IV)(8)(3): 317–490. -- Show included taxa

Weygoldt, P. (1969). Beobachtungen zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie und zum Verhalten der Geisselspinne Tarantula marginemaculata C.L. Koch (Chelicerata, Amblypygi). Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 64: 338–360. -- Show included taxa

Weygoldt, P. (1970b). Courtship behaviour and sperm transfer in the giant whip scorpion, Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Uropygi, Thelyphonidae). Behaviour 36: 1–8. -- Show included taxa

Weygoldt, P. (1971b). Notes on the life history and reproductive biology of the giant whip scorpion, Mastigoproctus giganteus (Uropygi, Thelyphonidae) from Florida. Journal of Zoology, London 164: 137–147. -- Show included taxa

Weygoldt, P. (1972b). Spermatophorenbau und Samenübertragung bei Uropygen (Mastigoproctus brasilianus C.L. Koch) und Amblypygen (Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt und Admetus pumilio C.L. Koch) (Chelicerata, Arachnida). Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 71: 23–51. -- Show included taxa

Weygoldt, P. (1972d). Geisselskorpione und Geisselspinnen (Uropygi und Amblypygi). Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo 15: 95–107. -- Show included taxa

Weygoldt, P. (1975b). Die indirekte Spermatophorenübertragung bei Arachniden. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft 1974: 308–313. -- Show included taxa

Weygoldt, P. (1975c). Kampf, Paarung und Brutfürsorge bei Geisselskorpionen (Uropygi). Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film: 1–17. -- Show included taxa

Weygoldt, P. (1990). Arthropoda-Chelicerata: sperm transfer. In: Adiyodi, K.G. and Adiyodi, R.G. (ed.) Reproductive biology of invertebrates Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi 4 (B): 77–119. -- Show included taxa

Weygoldt, P. (2002f). Chelicerata, Spinnentiere. In: Westheide, W. and Rieger, R. (ed.) Spezielle Zoologie Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin 1: Einzeller und Wirbellose Tiere: 449–497. -- Show included taxa

Wheeler, W.C. (1995). Sequence alignment, parameter sensitivity, and the phylogenetic analysis of molecular data. Systematic Biology 44: 321–331. -- Show included taxa

Wheeler, W.C. (1997). Sampling, groundplans, total evidence and the systematics of arthropods. In: Fortey, R.A. and Thomas, R.H. (ed.) Arthropod relationships Chapman and Hall, London: 87–95. -- Show included taxa

Wheeler, W.C. & Hayashi, C.Y. (1998). The phylogeny of the extant chelicerate orders. Cladistics 14: 173–192. -- Show included taxa

Wheeler, W.C., Cartright, P. & Hayashi, C.Y. (1993). Arthropod phylogeny: a combined approach. Cladistics 9: 1–39. -- Show included taxa

Whitford, W.G. & Steinberger, Y. (2010). Pack rats (Neotoma spp.): keystone ecological engineers? Journal of Arid Environments 74(11): 1450–1455. -- Show included taxa

Wood, H.C. (1863b). On the Pedipalpi of North America. Journal the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (2) 5: 357–376. -- Show included taxa

Freeman, J. & Hochberg, R. (2018). Structure and functional morphology of the acid-secreting pygidial glands in the whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas, 1835) (Arachnida: Thelyphonida). Zoomorphology 137: 85-1ß3. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-017-0377-4 -- Show included taxa

Wolff, G.H. & Strausfeld, N.J. (2015). Genealogical correspondence of mushroom bodies across invertebrate phyla. Current Biology 25: 38-44. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.10.049 -- Show included taxa

Lehmann, T. & Melzer, R.R. (2019). The visual system of Thelyphonida (whip scorpions): Support for Arachnopulmonata. Arthropod Structure & Development 51: 23-31. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asd.2019.06.002 -- Show included taxa

Gallant, J. & Hochberg, R. (2017). Elemental characterization of the exoskeleton in the whipscorpions Mastigoproctus giganteus and Typopeltis dalyi (Arachnida: Thelyphonida). Invertebrate Biology 136(3): 345-359. doi: DOI: 10.1111/ivb.12187 -- Show included taxa

Klußmann-Fricke, B.-J. & Wirkner, C.S. (2016). Comparative morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in Uropygi and Amblypygi (Arachnida): Complex correspondences support Arachnopulmonata. Journal of Morphology 277: 1084-1103. doi: DOI 10.1002/jmor.20559 -- Show included taxa

Logs
Date Type Reference Old value
2022-07-04 Taxonomic reference update Klußmann-Fricke and Wirkner, 2016
2022-07-04 Taxonomic reference update Klußmann-Fricke and Wirkner, 2016
2022-07-04 Taxonomic reference update Klußmann-Fricke and Wirkner, 2016
2022-07-04 New taxonomic reference entry Klußmann-Fricke and Wirkner, 2016
2022-07-03 New taxonomic reference entry Gallant and Hochberg, 2017
2022-07-03 New taxonomic reference entry Grams, Wirkner and Runge, 2018
2022-07-03 New taxonomic reference entry Lehmann and Melzer, 2019
2022-07-03 New taxonomic reference entry Wolff and Strausfeld, 2015
2022-07-03 New taxonomic reference entry Freeman and Hochberg, 2018